Marking ‘horrors of Ngatapa’

‘A stain upon the history of this country’.

‘A stain upon the history of this country’.

COLONIAL FIGHTERS: Members of the 313-strong Armed Constabulary pictured in Turanga in 1868. The Waitangi Tribunal said it believed the above men fought in the Siege of Ngatapa. Colonial forces at Ngatapa also included 370 Ngati Porou led by Rapata Wahawaha. Photo courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library. PA Coll 1767-1
REMEMBERING TRAGIC EVENTS: Te Aitanga a Mahaki kaumatua Wiirangi Charlie Pera (right) blesses the Nick Tupara-designed memorial honouring the defenders of Waerenga-a-Hika pa, who fought Crown forces during a nearly week-long siege in November, 1865. Kingi Tuheitia from Waikato-Tainui and Te Whakatohea, who unveiled the memorial sculpture at the 150th anniversary commemoration, stands to the left. A similar commemorative event today will mark the 150th anniversary of the Siege of Ngatapa. Gisborne Herald file photo
HILL-TOP PA: James Richmond’s 1869 drawing of ‘‘Ngatapa from the East’’, showing the fortified pa on the summit of the mountain where Te Kooti had retreated to with his 217 to 230-strong force, prisoners and 210 women and children. Picture courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library. A-048-011

Te Whanau a Kai host a commemorative event today marking the 150th anniversary of the Siege of Ngatapa, where Crown forces stripped and executed captured prisoners “like dogs’’. Wynsley Wrigley looks at the Waitangi Tribunal’s finding of what happened in response to a deadly raid on Matawhero by Te Kooti and his forces, after the Crown — including a Ngati Porou force — drove Te Kooti back to a hilltop pa at Ngatapa in 1868-1869.

The execution of between 86 and 128 prisoners (as estimated by the Waitangi Tribunal) by Crown forces demonstrated ‘‘how thin the veneer of the rule of law could be in colonial New Zealand”.

Yesterday, January 5, was the 150th anniversary of the day colonial forces discovered Te Kooti and his supporters had escaped down the steep northern face of a 600-metre high cone-shaped mountain.

The Crown forces quickly set off in pursuit. The Waitangi Tribunal described the incidents that followed as ‘‘the horrors of Ngatapa’’.

Over the two months from Te Kooti’s attack on Matawhero in November to the Crown’s revenge at Ngatapa, some of the most distressing events in New Zealand’s colonial past happened, said the tribunal in its Turanga hearings report.

“From the Crown’s attack on Waerenga-a-Hika in November 1865 to the fall of Ngatapa in January 1869, we estimate that approximately 240 adult men, or 43 percent of the adult male population of Turanga, were killed in armed conflict with the Crown.

“This is an extraordinary level of loss for any community anywhere.

“It is, we believe, the highest casualty rate suffered by Maori in any region in New Zealand during the land wars.”
The tribunal estimated Te Kooti led between 217 and 230 men at this time, and 210 women and children were also in the pa.

Te Kooti’s fighting force of around 200 was made up of men from the upper Wairoa, Ngati Kahungunu, Tuhoe from Te Whaiti and Maungapohatu, some of his Ngati Maru kin, and a number of escaped prisoners from their exile in the Chathams.
The siege, the second attempt to take Ngatapa Pa, had begun on New Year’s Day and featured the use of “vertically firing cohorn mortars,” which Colonel George Whitmore, commander of Crown military forces (and a veteran of the Crimean War) said had never previously been used against Maori forces.

Colonial forces consisted of about 680 men, comprising 313 Armed Constabulary — including 60 Te Arawa — under a Pakeha officer and 370 Ngati Porou led by Rapata Wahawaha.

They did not have men stationed on the northern side of the hill top where Te Kooti escaped because of an erroneous belief it was too steep to negotiate.

'Shot like dogs'

In the words of J.P. Ward, a member of the Armed Constabulary, captured prisoners were ‘‘stripped of every vestige of clothing they possessed and shot — shot like dogs”.

“There was no mention of a trial or if any or all of them had participated in the Poverty Bay Massacre,” said Ward.
“That did not matter to us one straw.

“They were shot and their bodies left to swelter and rot under the summer’s sun, and bones to bleach to this day.

“And all of this — and very much more — as done beneath the Meteor flag of Mighty England.”

Major John St John wrote that “every hour brought forth intelligence of Hau Haus overtaken and shot”.

“One party of Uriwera (original spellings used here), eighteen strong, was met by the Ngatiporou, and fifteen fell before the fire brought to bear upon them.

“Still Te Kooti was not brought in, although bands of pursuers returned at intervals, few of them but were laden with loot, bringing with them women and children.

“It is much to the credit of the native allies that they did, although bent on massacre, refrain from following out their old Maori customs, and that in every instance women and children were spared.

“As for the men, they met their fate boldly.”

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Porter said that Colonel Whitmore left Ropata to await the return of the pursuing parties.

‘‘As each detachment came in with its batch of prisoners, Ropata rather unsparingly ordered them for execution, particularly those known to be escapees from the Chathams and also those who had participated in the massacre.

‘‘The place of execution was upon the verge of a cliff, where the prisoners were stripped, then ranged in line and shot down by the firing parties, their bodies falling over the cliff.

“The retribution lasted for three days.”

Kotuku, one of the Whakarau — exiles or “unhomed”, as Te Kooti named the nearly 300 prisoners he escaped with from the Chatham Islands several months earlier — said: ‘‘I escaped into the deep forest, but many of our people were captured and shot.’’

A Ngati Porou source also referred to the capture of some 100 people in the pursuit, the majority of whom were killed in the bush.

The tribunal concluded that the killings “clearly occurred after the capture”.
“The sources disagree only as to the site of the killings.”

Assessing the evidence presented, the Waitangi Tribunal estimated:

  • Numbers of men killed by Crown forces during the siege — 48 to 53
  • Numbers executed: 86 to 128
  • Those killed in pursuit: 16 to 30.
  • Those taken prisoner and returned to Turanga: 22 to 34.
  • Crown forces: 11 men killed, including five Ngati Porou and one Te Arawa.

Some of those killed by Crown forces had been the prisoners of Te Kooti.
The tribunal said “the Crown was entitled to undertake military action against the Whakarau following their attack on Turanga’’.

But in their military action at Ngatapa, the Crown “failed to discriminate between those who had participated in the Turanga murders and those who were innocent captives of the Whakarau”.

“To that extent, the Crown engaged in careless and indiscriminate military action against innocent people.
“They were unreasonable and in bad faith.

“They failed actively to protect the lives of innocent Maori.

“They failed to ensure that Maori were accorded all the rights and privileges of British subjects as promised by . . . the Treaty of Waitangi.’’

The Crown conceded that the execution of unarmed prisoners by the State, without due process, constituted a breach of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.

However, the Crown argued that the executions were carried out by Ngati Porou auxiliaries under the direction of their leader Rapata Wahawaha.

They were effectively independent allies of the Crown, rather than Crown troops.

The Tribunal rejected that argument, noting the Crown had argued previously, concerning the Siege of Waerenga-a-Hika, that iwi were not independent of the Crown.

Maori, even if not represented by a signatory to the Treaty, became British subjects simply by virtue of the annexation which took place as an Act of State by the Proclamations of May 1840, the Crown had argued.

The Crown therefore could not argue Ngati Porou forces were independent of the Crown at Ngatapa three years later.
“Ngati Porou forces were obviously acting with consent, implicit or explicit, at the highest level of command.
‘‘We find accordingly that the executions were carried out by Crown forces — and therefore by the Crown itself.”

The Waitangi Tribunal said there was a “remarkable official silence’’ relating to the events at and after Ngatapa.
There was no government inquiry into the allegations of execution.
It was certainly apparent that many knew killings had occurred there on a horrific scale.

The Crown ought to have investigated them and tried those implicated in their commission.

“To be blunt, the Ngatapa executions are a stain upon the history of this country, and it is long past time for them to be put right.”

Te Whanau a Kai host a commemorative event today marking the 150th anniversary of the Siege of Ngatapa, where Crown forces stripped and executed captured prisoners “like dogs’’. Wynsley Wrigley looks at the Waitangi Tribunal’s finding of what happened in response to a deadly raid on Matawhero by Te Kooti and his forces, after the Crown — including a Ngati Porou force — drove Te Kooti back to a hilltop pa at Ngatapa in 1868-1869.

The execution of between 86 and 128 prisoners (as estimated by the Waitangi Tribunal) by Crown forces demonstrated ‘‘how thin the veneer of the rule of law could be in colonial New Zealand”.

Yesterday, January 5, was the 150th anniversary of the day colonial forces discovered Te Kooti and his supporters had escaped down the steep northern face of a 600-metre high cone-shaped mountain.

The Crown forces quickly set off in pursuit. The Waitangi Tribunal described the incidents that followed as ‘‘the horrors of Ngatapa’’.

Over the two months from Te Kooti’s attack on Matawhero in November to the Crown’s revenge at Ngatapa, some of the most distressing events in New Zealand’s colonial past happened, said the tribunal in its Turanga hearings report.

“From the Crown’s attack on Waerenga-a-Hika in November 1865 to the fall of Ngatapa in January 1869, we estimate that approximately 240 adult men, or 43 percent of the adult male population of Turanga, were killed in armed conflict with the Crown.

“This is an extraordinary level of loss for any community anywhere.

“It is, we believe, the highest casualty rate suffered by Maori in any region in New Zealand during the land wars.”
The tribunal estimated Te Kooti led between 217 and 230 men at this time, and 210 women and children were also in the pa.

Te Kooti’s fighting force of around 200 was made up of men from the upper Wairoa, Ngati Kahungunu, Tuhoe from Te Whaiti and Maungapohatu, some of his Ngati Maru kin, and a number of escaped prisoners from their exile in the Chathams.
The siege, the second attempt to take Ngatapa Pa, had begun on New Year’s Day and featured the use of “vertically firing cohorn mortars,” which Colonel George Whitmore, commander of Crown military forces (and a veteran of the Crimean War) said had never previously been used against Maori forces.

Colonial forces consisted of about 680 men, comprising 313 Armed Constabulary — including 60 Te Arawa — under a Pakeha officer and 370 Ngati Porou led by Rapata Wahawaha.

They did not have men stationed on the northern side of the hill top where Te Kooti escaped because of an erroneous belief it was too steep to negotiate.

'Shot like dogs'

In the words of J.P. Ward, a member of the Armed Constabulary, captured prisoners were ‘‘stripped of every vestige of clothing they possessed and shot — shot like dogs”.

“There was no mention of a trial or if any or all of them had participated in the Poverty Bay Massacre,” said Ward.
“That did not matter to us one straw.

“They were shot and their bodies left to swelter and rot under the summer’s sun, and bones to bleach to this day.

“And all of this — and very much more — as done beneath the Meteor flag of Mighty England.”

Major John St John wrote that “every hour brought forth intelligence of Hau Haus overtaken and shot”.

“One party of Uriwera (original spellings used here), eighteen strong, was met by the Ngatiporou, and fifteen fell before the fire brought to bear upon them.

“Still Te Kooti was not brought in, although bands of pursuers returned at intervals, few of them but were laden with loot, bringing with them women and children.

“It is much to the credit of the native allies that they did, although bent on massacre, refrain from following out their old Maori customs, and that in every instance women and children were spared.

“As for the men, they met their fate boldly.”

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Porter said that Colonel Whitmore left Ropata to await the return of the pursuing parties.

‘‘As each detachment came in with its batch of prisoners, Ropata rather unsparingly ordered them for execution, particularly those known to be escapees from the Chathams and also those who had participated in the massacre.

‘‘The place of execution was upon the verge of a cliff, where the prisoners were stripped, then ranged in line and shot down by the firing parties, their bodies falling over the cliff.

“The retribution lasted for three days.”

Kotuku, one of the Whakarau — exiles or “unhomed”, as Te Kooti named the nearly 300 prisoners he escaped with from the Chatham Islands several months earlier — said: ‘‘I escaped into the deep forest, but many of our people were captured and shot.’’

A Ngati Porou source also referred to the capture of some 100 people in the pursuit, the majority of whom were killed in the bush.

The tribunal concluded that the killings “clearly occurred after the capture”.
“The sources disagree only as to the site of the killings.”

Assessing the evidence presented, the Waitangi Tribunal estimated:

  • Numbers of men killed by Crown forces during the siege — 48 to 53
  • Numbers executed: 86 to 128
  • Those killed in pursuit: 16 to 30.
  • Those taken prisoner and returned to Turanga: 22 to 34.
  • Crown forces: 11 men killed, including five Ngati Porou and one Te Arawa.

Some of those killed by Crown forces had been the prisoners of Te Kooti.
The tribunal said “the Crown was entitled to undertake military action against the Whakarau following their attack on Turanga’’.

But in their military action at Ngatapa, the Crown “failed to discriminate between those who had participated in the Turanga murders and those who were innocent captives of the Whakarau”.

“To that extent, the Crown engaged in careless and indiscriminate military action against innocent people.
“They were unreasonable and in bad faith.

“They failed actively to protect the lives of innocent Maori.

“They failed to ensure that Maori were accorded all the rights and privileges of British subjects as promised by . . . the Treaty of Waitangi.’’

The Crown conceded that the execution of unarmed prisoners by the State, without due process, constituted a breach of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.

However, the Crown argued that the executions were carried out by Ngati Porou auxiliaries under the direction of their leader Rapata Wahawaha.

They were effectively independent allies of the Crown, rather than Crown troops.

The Tribunal rejected that argument, noting the Crown had argued previously, concerning the Siege of Waerenga-a-Hika, that iwi were not independent of the Crown.

Maori, even if not represented by a signatory to the Treaty, became British subjects simply by virtue of the annexation which took place as an Act of State by the Proclamations of May 1840, the Crown had argued.

The Crown therefore could not argue Ngati Porou forces were independent of the Crown at Ngatapa three years later.
“Ngati Porou forces were obviously acting with consent, implicit or explicit, at the highest level of command.
‘‘We find accordingly that the executions were carried out by Crown forces — and therefore by the Crown itself.”

The Waitangi Tribunal said there was a “remarkable official silence’’ relating to the events at and after Ngatapa.
There was no government inquiry into the allegations of execution.
It was certainly apparent that many knew killings had occurred there on a horrific scale.

The Crown ought to have investigated them and tried those implicated in their commission.

“To be blunt, the Ngatapa executions are a stain upon the history of this country, and it is long past time for them to be put right.”

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Rev Hone Te Rire, Onepu - 11 days ago
Those followers of Te Kooti who were murdered by colonial and militia forces must be recompensed. The people of Tuhoe, in particular Tamakaimoana, who were murdered for assisting Te Kooti and the Whakarau must be reconciled and recompensed. A blight on our country's history that must be told. Memories good and bad must be remembered and honoured.

Roger Strong, Taupo - 11 days ago
The usual whitewash of the murder at Matawhero of some 60 men, women and children - some even babies - by Te Kooti and his followers - many of them Maori as well. My great-grandfather fought alongside Major Ropata and was pleased all his life to say that he had. Te Kooti and his men failed in their part of the Treaty of Waitangi bargain. Stop trying to rewrite history so that more money can be fleeced off the taxpayer!

Barry Jones, Hawke's Bay - 11 days ago
Get over it.

Kaz Ngatapa Waititi - 11 days ago
It has been more than long enough for the Crown to at least admit yet more of their wrongdoings, coming to Aotearoa and killing Maori the people of this Land! Taking lives! Taking property! Taking our CULTURE!!! What didn't they take??? Time may heal...But the past will never be forgotten.

Don Miller, Picton - 10 days ago
Just wondering how many readers have read Te Araroa by the late Bob McConnell, published by Te Rau Press back in 1993. This isn't an advertisement - just a recommendation.

Robyn Tuhou - 10 days ago
Roger Strong, was your grandfather proud to have served under Wahawaha, or proud to have been part of the murder of people who hadn't even been tried in a court of law?

Anthony Gray, Tauranga - 9 days ago
Seems like no one will admit guilt when all are guilty. Maori killed and stole from Maori and their forebears long before the Pakeha came. Pakeha came and did it to the Maori. Te Kooti was pissed because his land was being stolen by greedy whanau and Pakeha. He had a point. It is the killing of innocents that is demeaning to us all. Let's admit we are all tarred by the same brush, recognise the past, and move forward in an enlightened, positive and sharing way...

winstonmoreton - 9 days ago
Anthony Gray puts it well even with a reference to tar brushing which might offend some sensitive souls. If we go back far enough everyone came out of Africa; assuming Mary and Louis Leakey got it right. Looking forward it can be reasonably presumed humans born on the Moon and beyond will be aliens and forbidden access to Australia and the USA. Let's focus instead on current local injustices like the daily pillaging of household and business power accounts by our ECT.

Mark Brooke, Auckland - 9 days ago
Utu is a terrible thing and unfortunately it seems to be a part of all people's psychology. Looking at the past through modern eyes gives a false perspective.
Attitudes change over time. Both sides of this conflict were capable of the most amazing acts of good and evil. Context is the key to understanding this.

Lara Meyer - 8 days ago
Reverend Hone and Robyn.
I tautoko your comments. What happened to Te Kooti and his followers, to Te Whanau a Kai and other local iwi was atrocious.
Gisborne Herald, keep sharing stories about what occurred during the land wars from the perspective of tangata whenua please. Some of us find the facts really enlightening and informative.
Lest We Forget.

Tom Webb, Rotorua - 8 days ago
Both parties were at war, they were pursuing their own endeavours to claim what was their perceived justified right. Unfortunately, after the atrocities of war, someone had to lose out.
Today they have surviving descendants and we can only go on what history expresses . . . as we ponder if it was only an illusion. It began and ended. It was war.

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